Same-Gender Marriage and Religious Freedom - Interfaith Alliance
Skip to main content. Copy URL. Likewise, a majority of white evangelicals 61 percent believe that religious liberty is threatened in America Cox and Jones Thus, the emphasis on rights and equality may be an intentional strategy of conservative religious activists to emphasize perceived oppression and persecution of the conservative Christians within America in an era of increasing visibility and acceptance of LGBTQ people. For proponents of religious freedom laws, a free market rationale emphasizes that gay men and lesbians are not harmed as a result of religious freedom bills.
According to them, even though gay men and lesbians may encounter a business owner who will not serve them, gays and lesbians are not harmed because the free market provides ample business options for them to pursue. Yet on the other side, respondents draw on understandings about capitalism to posit that business owners would be harmed by religious freedom bills because denying service to a group of potential customers would in fact be detrimental to business profits and contrary to the philosophy of the free market.
The free market and capitalism are seen as arbiters of justice, ensuring both that business owners who would discriminate against gays and lesbians would suffer appropriate consequences according to those who oppose legislation and that gays and lesbians would have ample outlets to secure whatever provisions they were seeking according to those who support legislation. Indeed, we also found that not all people who support religious freedom legislation specifically mentioned the need to protect religious freedom in their justification.
Moreover, that those who oppose religious freedom legislation likewise upheld neoliberalism and championed the framework of the free market mirrors the strategy used by some LGBTQ rights organizations. For instance, groups such as the Human Rights Campaign put out an equality index that ranks businesses and corporations on how LGBTQ friendly they are using a range of measures. Our findings support the observation that Americans may increasingly look to nongovernmental interventions, such as the free market, to adjudicate matters of discrimination and equality with regard to religious freedom see Duggan ; Levitsky Ultimately, the fact that people on both sides of the debates over religious freedom laws appeal to frameworks that resonate with nearly all Americans to justify their position underscores why these bills will likely continue to be introduced, debated, and seen as controversial, despite the fact that polling data suggests that a majority of Americans may actually be opposed to some of what such bills codify into law.
It identifies anti-LGBT bills as antitransgender regulating single-sex facility restrooms, identification documents, health care, and other ; First Amendment defense acts; religious freedom restoration acts; religious exemptions related to health care access, adoption and foster care, marriage-related exemptions, and other; and preventive measures against nondiscrimination protection for LGBTQ people. The themes in these quotations either occurred at such low frequencies that they did not warrant their own codes or showed that the respondents did not understand the topic of the question.
For example, some respondents appeared to interpret the question as asking about the ability to hire or fire an employee on the basis of sexual orientation. Other respondents wrote explanations of their views on same-sex marriage. We excluded these exceptions from the analyses.
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For this reason, we use national data from the Pew Research Center d for comparisons. Coding the open-ended responses, however, revealed 18 respondents who we believe mismarked their responses to the closed-ended item e. Thus, we created a measure that corrected these inconsistent responses.
Because there was a less than 1 percentage point difference between the original and corrected measure, we use the corrected measure for the remaining analyses. The distributions were also similar to weighted analyses, which showed Kelsy Burke is an assistant professor of sociology at the University of Nebraska—Lincoln, where she researches the relationship between religion and sexuality in contemporary America. Mathew Stange is a survey researcher at Mathematica Policy Research, where he works on the design and implementation of data collection for survey and qualitative studies. His doctoral studies focused on the design of mail surveys to encourage LGB participation and reporting of their sexual identity.
His other areas of research include public opinion of LGBT issues, survey design for special populations, visual design of mail and Web surveys, eye-tracking research, and within-household selection methods for mail surveys. Skip to main content. Socius: Sociological Research for a Dynamic World.
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Same-Sex Marriage and Religious Liberty : Emerging Conflicts
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Kelsy Burke. Mathew Stange.
Article information. Article Information Volume: 4. Article first published online: February 28, ; Issue published: January 1, Keywords public opinion , sexuality , LGBT rights , religious freedom. Cultural Schemas: Rights and Free Market. Legislating Religious Freedom. Nebraska: A Case Study. View larger version. Open in new tab. Download in PowerPoint. Figure 1.
Coding structure for open-ended responses. Views on Religious Freedom Laws. Logics Used for Views. The Free Market. Discussion and Conclusion. Notes 1 We use the term LGBTQ when discussing religious freedom legislation to reflect the fact that these bills affect a range of nonheterosexual or nonbinary individuals.
Find out more. Tips on citation download. Adam, Barry D. Google Scholar Crossref. Amable, Bruno. Google Scholar. American Association for Public Opinion Research. American Civil Liberties Union. Bell, Joyce, Hartmann, Douglas. Bernstein, Mary. Blair-Loy, Mary.