Educating Edward: The Story of a Boy In Trouble and the Man Who Saved Him

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There were also many surgeons who did not want Jenner to succeed. They were the variolators whose large incomes were threatened by Jenner's safer and more effective cowpox treatment. People quickly became fearful of the possible consequences of receiving material originating from cows and opposed vaccination on religious grounds, saying that they would not be treated with substances originating from God's lowlier creatures.


Variolation was forbidden by Act of Parliament in and vaccination with cowpox was made compulsory in This in its turn led to protest marches and vehement opposition from those who demanded freedom of choice. Edward Jenner spent much of the rest of his life supplying cowpox material to others around the world and discussing related scientific matters. He was so involved in corresponding about smallpox that he called himself 'the Vaccine Clerk to the World'.

He quickly developed techniques for taking matter from human cowpox pocks and drying it onto threads or glass so that it could be widely transported. The technique of introducing material under the skin to produce protection against disease became universally known as vaccination, a word derived from the Latin name for the cow vacca , in Jenner's honour.

He received the freedom of many cities, including London, Glasgow, Edinburgh and Dublin. Societies and universities around the world gave him honorary degrees and membership. Perhaps the most significant tributes were the minting of a special medal by Napoleon in , the gift of a ring by the Empress of Russia and a string and belt of Wampum beads and a certificate of gratitude from the North American Indian Chiefs.

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Statues to his honour were erected as far afield as Tokyo and London. The latter is now in Kensington Gardens, but was originally sited in Trafalgar Square. They estimated at that time that there were still up to 15 million cases of smallpox each year. The biggest problem areas were South America, Africa and the Indian subcontinent. Their approach was to vaccinate every person in the areas at risk. Teams of vaccinators from all over the world journeyed to the remotest of communities.

It has been estimated that the task he started has led to the saving of more human lives than the work of any other person. International research tells the same story.

Results of the reading tests conducted by the Program for International Student Assessment show that, among year-olds in the United States and the 13 countries whose students outperformed ours, students with lower economic and social status had far lower test scores than their more advantaged counterparts within every country. Can anyone credibly believe that the mediocre overall performance of American students on international tests is unrelated to the fact that one-fifth of American children live in poverty?

Yet federal education policy seems blind to all this. No Child Left Behind required all schools to bring all students to high levels of achievement but took no note of the challenges that disadvantaged students face. The legislation did, to be sure, specify that subgroups — defined by income, minority status and proficiency in English — must meet the same achievement standard. But it did so only to make sure that schools did not ignore their disadvantaged students — not to help them address the challenges they carry with them into the classroom.

So why do presumably well-intentioned policy makers ignore, or deny, the correlations of family background and student achievement? Some honestly believe that schools are capable of offsetting the effects of poverty. Others want to avoid the impression that they set lower expectations for some groups of students for fear that those expectations will be self-fulfilling.

After 6 Years in Exile, Edward Snowden Explains Himself | WIRED

In both cases, simply wanting something to be true does not make it so. But close scrutiny of charter school performance has shown that many of the success stories have been limited to particular grades or subjects and may be attributable to substantial outside financing or extraordinarily long working hours on the part of teachers.

The evidence does not support the view that the few success stories can be scaled up to address the needs of large populations of disadvantaged students. A final rationale for denying the correlation is more nefarious. As we are now seeing, requiring all schools to meet the same high standards for all students, regardless of family background, will inevitably lead either to large numbers of failing schools or to a dramatic lowering of state standards.

Both serve to discredit the public education system and lend support to arguments that the system is failing and needs fundamental change, like privatization. Given the budget crises at the national and state levels, and the strong political power of conservative groups, a significant effort to reduce poverty or deal with the closely related issue of racial segregation is not in the political cards, at least for now. View all New York Times newsletters.

So what can be done? Large bodies of research have shown how poor health and nutrition inhibit child development and learning and, conversely, how high-quality early childhood and preschool education programs can enhance them. Though Maisie is indeed vulnerable to those who seek to trick her, it is questionable whether she is truly submissive, as Dowell assumes.

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From the same convent school as Leonora, Mrs. Maidan preserves some of the strict morality that was once taught to her.

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He is the second husband of Leonora, and is mentioned, but does not act, in the story. His character serves as a foil to Edward; Bayham is 'perfectly normal' and quite respectable in his quiet passionless liaisons. Basil is a sympathetic listener to Edward's discussion of his estate and his tales of heroism. Basil is lonely, as her husband, Major Basil, often leaves her alone for long stretches of time.

Because she is closer to Edward's class, the affair they begin seems relatively safe and ends when Edward leaves India. But when he learns of the affair, Major Basil endeavors to blackmail Edward. She aims to seduce Edward and take as much of his money as possible; she cares nothing about his love, his passions, or the public embarrassment of their affair.

Though Dowell thinks them eccentric, they try their hardest to warn him away from their wayward niece.

After 6 Years in Exile, Edward Snowden Explains Himself

Florence despises and distrusts them. Edward, meeting Selmes along a path one day, offers to give him his old horse. This act of charity enrages Leonora, but enthralls Nancy; thus is highlights the difference between Leonora and the Girl. Dowell notes that Major Rufford has an "ungovernable temper," despite the fact that he doesn't drink.